I love black and white photography.  It can simplify a scene by removing the distraction of color.  It’s an excellent option if you want to shoot in harsh midday light.  And you can create incredible drama.

If you do a lot of black and white photography, you probably already know that dodging and burning is critical to making stunning images.  But did you know that one of the best ways to make a great black and white image is by using color?  That sounds strange, but there are at least a couple of great reasons to use color in a monochrome image.  First, the original color in the image is excellent for making masks that target specific subjects in the image by color.  And second, finishing the image with a slight tinge of color (such as blue or sepia) can greatly enhance the mood vs a pure black and white result.  We’ll cover all three of these techniques in this tutorial on how to create black and white photos with luminosity masks.


Using color to create masks

When different subjects have similar tonal values, color can be a great way to help discriminate when creating luminosity selections.  In the video tutorial above, the rocks are yellow and the sky is blue.  That makes it very easy to select one or the other, even though they have somewhat similar luminosity values.  In this particular demo, I probably could have used the Quick Select tool successfully, but I would have to work to avoid edge artifacts.  And the Quick Select isn’t always an option.  So adding color to your selecting and masking workflow is incredibly helpful.

You’ll need to have access your original color to be able to create these color-based selections.  My favorite way to do that is to simply add a Black and White (B&W) adjustment layer above the original color image.  This lets you view your work in black and white, but access the color at any time simply by making that B&W adjustment layer invisible temporarily.

However, if you prefer a different method for converting to black and white, that’s fine too.  You can either keep a duplicate layer in color, or just load the color image as needed from your RAW file.  If you use this method, it’s important that the duplicate version only differs in color.  Any distortion correction, cropping, cloning, etc should be done first or last because any misalignment of the pixels will make the color copy a poor option for creating masks.

Lumenzia offers several color-based selection methods, including adjustment of the B&W layer at the bottom of the orange layer stack created while previewing masks, color masks, and the “Color” group.  If you are using my free luminosity masking panel, I recommend getting familiar with the Color Range tool found under the Select menu in Photoshop, and using this to create group masks based on color.  You can also try to use channels, but most colors include some of each RGB channel, so I prefer the other options.

Dodging and burning

The key to any great black and white image is control of the tones, and that is done with dodging and burning (lightening and darkening).  This helps control attention in the image and enhances the feeling of depth.  Use the “Dodge” button in Lumenzia to get started.  Or create a blank layer set to “soft light” or “overlay” blend mode, and paint white and black to dodge and burn. Any area painted white will become lighter, and any area painted black will become darker.

Use luminosity or color based selections to target your painting. This will help you create better results faster and with higher quality.   For example, in the tutorial above, I use luminosity selections to avoid dodging (lightening) the shadows in the cracks of the rocks.  If I painted without a selection, the rocks would lose contrast and feel a bit washed out.

Color toning

A slight bit of color toning can dramatically improve black and white images.  Sepia-toning is the most familiar way of doing this, but you can use any color in any amount.  I like to use minimal amounts of blue or yellow to tone the image.  This let’s me use Blue to add a cold and imposing mood to a barren landscape, or yellow to add warmth to a portrait of a smiling person.  It’s a subtle psychological cue that helps reinforce the artistic intent of the image.

There are several ways you can finish the image by adding a subtle color tone.  A Color Balance adjustment layer is a great way to mix your favorite color tones.  You could alternatively use a Solid Color layer set to blend mode to pick a specific color instead of mixing CMY. However, I find the tones shadows heavy with Solid Color, so consider adding a lights BlendIf to balance the color more evenly across all tones (this will prevent excess color in the shadows).  Or another option is to use a Color Lookup layer, especially the blue and sepia options (under the Abstract dropdown) or Smokey (under Device Link).  With all of these, try turning the effect on and off to compare and review the color and opacity.  Your eyes will otherwise quickly adjust to the effect and make it harder to evaluate.


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Photography is my life.  But I’ve had some heartbreaks.  But when the light on my hard drive turned red, I knew I had avoided one because my data is stored on a RAID drive.

In a nutshell, a RAID (redundant array of independent disks) allows you to combine multiple hard drives together to act as one.  This can be used for protection against a hard drive failure, as the data can automatically be duplicated to multiple drives.  It can also be used for speed, as spreading your data across multiple drives allows each of them to do some work at the same time.  Or, it can even be used to improve both speed and protection.

As a photographer, I have a huge amount of data that is very important to me.  In fact, I have over 8TB of data, and my laptop can only hold 2TB.  So I need some kind of external storage for my data.  I see two major benefits to using a RAID drive:

  • First, this approach is dramatically cheaper than buying the same amount of storage with solid-state drives (SSD).  That will probably change in the future, but that’s several years from now at least.
  • Second, I can continue working without interruption if one of the drives in my RAID setup fails.  That’s critical for me as a working photographer.  Restoring from a Time Machine could prevent me from working from a couple of days (or more if I have to order a new drive to restore to).  And even if I had a very recent clone drive to start using, it would be much slower and I may have problems merging data if it weren’t perfectly in sync with my Time Machine backup.

But as I wrote in my article about creating a bulletproof backup strategy, RAID is not a backup.  You can lose data on a RAID drive due to fire, theft, malware, accidental deletion, and many other scenarios other than failure of a single HDD.

I’ve used a Pegasus R6 RAID (the original with a Thunderbolt 1 interface) for just over 5 years.  Unfortunately, one of the drive bays has failed.  I kept replacing failed drives in the same slot, until I realized that the drive bay itself was bad (not the new drives I was putting in it).  But I was safe each time, as data is safe against two drive failures in a RAID6 setup.  And I was backed up in case that happened.  But regardless, it was time to upgrade, especially since a failure of the enclosure raises the possibility of the whole drive going down at once.

For my needs, I was looking for a replacement with a fast Thunderbolt3 and support for RAID6 (or the equivalent for 2 drive failure protection).  There are a few matching options on the market, but I opted to get the new LaCie 6Big with Thunderbolt3.  It’s pricier than the comparable Pegasus, but I was intrigued by the 5-year warranty after seeing my Pegasus start to fail, LaCie is owned by Seagate, and the 6Big comes with drives that I trust.  I wouldn’t hesitate to get another Pegasus (I don’t think 5 years of use is unreasonable), but thought it was time to try something new.  I also considered Drobo briefly, but have heard mixed reviews on their reliability (some strong warnings, as well as some super positive feedback).

On paper, the 6Big seemed to have everything I was looking for, other than enough power on the Thunderbolt connection to charge my laptop (it provides a little juice, but sadly not enough to work on the laptop without continuing to drain the battery slowly).  The size is very similar to my old Pegasus, it’s well reviewed, and looks decent.


Setup and initial impressions of the 6Big

My first impressions were also very positive.  The included software for OSX looks professional and was generally very easy to use.  I was able to configure the device in just a few minutes.  While my involvement in setting up the drive was just a few minutes, the total setup takes days.  Setting up the drive (should) involve initialization, which is a process where the device automatically inspects the hard drives for any problems.  This took about 2 solid days to complete.  Not a huge deal, but I couldn’t take my laptop with me or turn it off.  Then after initialization, I needed to copy 6.5TB of data to the drive – which required another couple of days.  I use Carbon Copy Cloner to duplicate my existing drive (and check for file corruption in the process).  All in, I spent about 30 minutes unpacking and configuring the 6Big, and felt really good about things at that point.  I just needed to wait 4 days of waiting for the drive get fully initialized.  And that didn’t include letting OSX encryption finish, which added another couple of weeks to complete!  (Note that if you ever want to check the progress of encryption on a Mac drive, use the following command in Terminal:  diskutil cs list)  But, if you don’t want to check for potential disk defects or encrypt your data, the setup takes only a few minutes.

I have the 6Big directly attached to my laptop via Thunderbolt3 cable.  I then daisy chain from the Thunderbolt3 port via adapted cable to the Pegasus R6, which daisy chains to a Belkin Thunderbolt1 hub for everything else (external monitor, Time machine, keyboard, mouse, etc).  This allows me to plug in a single cable to connect everything but power.  I did have to buy a 6′ Thunderbolt3 cable (the LaCie comes with a 4′ cable), which shockingly costs about $65.  But I’ve been able to avoid having to shell out for a pricey new Thunderbolt3 dock, which wouldn’t speed up anything else for me.

Configuration of the drive was very easy.  Physically, I just had to plug in the Thunderbolt cables and power cord, everything else was ready to go out of the box.  You then download LaCie’s software and turn on the drive.  Select your settings for the array (the default setting for RAID5 is great, I choose the custom option to use RAID6 and turn off caching).  With the 4TB drives and RAID6, this gives me 16TB of extra storage, plenty for what I expect will be the 5-year life of this drive for me.  I recommend accepting the option for background initialization (to manage the possibility of any bad sectors on the unused drives).  After you’ve setup the array, you need format the drive with the default tools in your operating system.  I’ve set mine to OSX journaled/encrypted, but expect that I’ll migrate to Apple’s new file system in the future for a variety of reasons (better data integrity and crash protection, faster initial response times, possibility of some space savings, and possibility of faster backups via snapshots).


LaCie customer support

Things got ugly when I was just about ready to start using the drive.  First, let me just state up front that it was a very poor choice for me not to do any device testing before letting the initialization and data cloning run.  I should have tested the device and my RAID settings right out of the box.  That would have save me 4 days of repeating the process after troubleshooting, and a few extra days waiting for responses from LaCie.  The problem was that, after everything was set up, I found that the write speed on the drive was slow. Really slow.  My old drive was 4X faster over Thunderbolt1, even though both systems used comparable 7200 Seagate drives and RAID6 (not entirely apples to apples, but I absolutely expected faster performance, not dramatically worse).  I found a blog showing test data 8X faster than my results, and LaCie’s test data for a RAID5 drive was >10X faster (I expect RAID5 to be faster than 6, but certainly not 10X).

I’m not going to sugar coat it, email support was painful.  Each response took about 18 hours, the answers were incomplete, and they just didn’t seem very knowledgeable.  They even told me that they “hadn’t tested RAID6” and suggested that the solution to my problem should be to give up and reformat the drive for RAID5.  They seemed happy to try to convince me that my RAID6 performance (100MB/s or less) might be reasonable when considering that RAID5 is a little faster (their official spec for RAID5 is 1150MB/s).

So, I decided to call instead – which is exactly what I should have done in the first place.  I was able to speak with a rep quickly, and he was friendly and had a reasonable approach to troubleshooting.  He wasn’t able to find the underlying issue, but I was generally happy with phone support.  I next set about doing a series of tests to either find if the drive was bad, or understand the root issue.


Test methods

I connected both my Pegasus and 6Big directly to my 2016 MacBook Pro for all tests, with no use of the daisy chain during testing.

I rebuilt/reformatted the 6Big several times over the course of a good four hours.  I found the issue, and learned a lot in the process.  The bottom line is that my write speeds were being affected by my use of OSX’s built-in disk encryption.  Simply reformatting the drive without encryption immediately bumped my RAID6 write speeds to nearly 800MB/s.  If I enabled encryption after formatting, I still saw good write speeds (so I assume that new data during the conversion process is temporarily left unencrypted).  But if encryption was added while formatting the drive, I saw a massive drop in speed back to my original numbers.

I tested ten base configurations, which included RAID 0, 10, 5, 6, and 50 – each with 64 and 1024K stripe sizes.  I turned caching off for all of those tests, and then additionally tested six more configurations with RAID6 using 128, 256, and 512K stripe sizes and caching both off and on.  My testing included running BlackMagic, as well as saving a TIF file from Photoshop both uncompressed (1.3GB) and with ZIP compression (1.14GB).  The BlackMagic tests offer a broad set of test conditions, and the Photoshop tests help directly test the write condition I care about most.

Here’s what I found:

  • OSX Encryption imposes a massive penalty on write speed (while the drive is in the initial process of being encrypting), but has no real effect on read speed.
  • As expected, uncompressed TIF files saved much faster (3-5s) than compressed TIFs (50-52s).  This is because the compression process is bottlenecked at the CPU, not the drive (see this post for more information on faster file saves in Photoshop).  This very important for my work, as I save nearly all my files as compressed TIFs.  Therefore, none of the various RAID settings have any effect on the speed of my Photoshop work!  They do however mean a lot when I move folders of images in Lightroom from my laptop to the RAID drive.
  • RAID0 performance is terrible.  This was utterly shocking to me.  RAID0 should be the fastest option, as it is purely designed for speed with no redundancy.  LaCie claims 1400MB write/read speeds in RAID 0, but I found 450-550 write speeds and 1100-1200 read speeds.   All of the slowest saves for uncompressed Photoshop files were from RAID0 configurations.  I cannot explain this, but it’s real (at least with this particular unit/firmware).  I rebuilt and re-tested several times because I couldn’t believe the result at first.  If anyone has any good theories as to why I might run into this on a device that’s otherwise performing as expected, I’d love to hear your thoughts.  Ultimately, it doesn’t really matter, as RAID0 is a terrible idea if you want to protect your data.  On this 6-bay device, it would literally be 6X more likely to fail than any one of its individual drives.
  • Larger stripe sizes generally provided somewhat faster write and slower read speeds for RAID 5/6/50, but showed the opposite effect in RAID 0.  The differences were mostly modest, but worth testing your setup if you want to optimize for speed.
  • Turning on disk caching improved write speeds by up to about 10%.

I also pulled one of the drives out while powered on.  The 6Big immediately drew attention to the situation.  It started beeping loudly.  The blue power light turned red.  And I received a couple of automated emails warning me that something was wrong, which is really nice if the unit fails when you are somewhere else.  The warning messages could be improved a big (they sound very scary as if I didn’t have protection for a second drive failure and that I might have lost data – though neither was the case).  Recovery is simple, I just plugged the missing drive back in and the system started a roughly day-long process of rebuilding the drive.


Test results

With the new LaCie 6Big in RAID6 with 512K stripe and caching disabled, I achieve 750MB/s write and 600MB/s read as shown in the BlackMagic test results below.  All the numbers I’m reporting at the top summary numbers.

I’m seeing the following performance relative to my other drives:

  • vs the internal 2TB SSD: The internal SSD shows 157% faster writes and 135% faster reads (ie, more than twice as fast at both).  [this drive tested at 1945 write and 1413 read]
  • vs the Pegasus (Thunderbolt 1) in RAID6: LaCie shows 58% faster writes and 91% faster reads (nearly twice as fast for reads).  As expected, the new drive is substantially faster with its use of Thunderbolt 3.   [this drive tested at 479 write and 317 read]
  • vs a 5400RPM external HDD on USB3:  Writing is a whopping 3350% (~34x) faster and reading is 2355% (~24x) faster.  [this drive tested at 21.9 write and 24.6 read]

Please take all these numbers as relative, as drive to drive variability is significant.  I’d expect other tests of similar hardware setup the same way would probably test within +/-20% of the numbers I saw.  A nearly exact match is very unlikely.

For me, the bottom line is that SSD or RAID is the only way to go for storing external data, other than an archival backup.  I use several of them for clones and my Time Machine.  But my cloning has typically been sporadic given the extremely slow process with a regular HDD, and I plan to convert the Pegasus into a fast clone that I can run more often with a simple overnight process.


I didn’t see any issues during the initial setup of the drive, but after I started using it regularly, my 2016 Macbook Pro started crashing and rebooting.  It was generating an error report with the warning “CATERR detected! No MCA data found.”  CATERR is a generic warning of a “catastrophic error”.  Not terribly helpful, but there are numerous reports of the new Macbook Pro generating this error, particularly in combination with some use of an external drive (both Thunderbolt and USB drives) and Time Machine.  I contacted LaCie again, and they suggested I remove the drive from the daisy chain (ie, don’t connect other devices through it) to help see if that was part of the issue.  Apple support had me reset the computer’s SMC, NVRAM, and reinstall OSX (not reformat, just reinstall).

After making those changes, the reboots have changed to Finder and the desktop freezing.  It occurs with the computer simply left on with no apps running, just background processes.  Since that includes the background use of Time Machine (and encrypting the Time Machine), the drives are in use (as the restored data on the new drive represents 6.5TB of data to be backed up by Time Machine).  When the problem occurs, I can’t even shut down the computer normally.  There’s no error message, it just stops working (though I can keep using any open application).  Needless to say, that’s super frustrating.  Apple believes that reformatting my hard drive and reinstalling has a reasonable chance of fixing the problem.  That would prevent me from working for a couple days, so I’m not too thrilled about that.  It’s possible that it’s a hardware issue in my laptop, which would require 2 days of my computer being tested at the Apple Store, followed by 3-5 days to get it repaired.  And it’s possible that the drive is defective, but that would also require a lot of time to fix (and I don’t know if LaCie would let me keep using the old drive while waiting for a new one).  I’m confident the problem can be addressed, but it’s an awful process to fix.

Thankfully, I could keep using the drive by connecting it via its USB 3.1 connection.  I have no issues in that configuration.  Unfortunately, that also slows down the speed to a crawl.  BlackMagic is showing 30.1 MB/s write and 34.9 MB/s read speeds, which is hardly faster than a single external drive and really doesn’t make sense to me.  But this allowed Time Machine to complete backing up after a few days of continuous operation.  After that, I reconnected the drive to Thunderbolt 3, and have yet to see a crash – but have also not had a situation where a significant amount of data was being backed up to Time Machine.  Either way, I’ve been able to use the drive at full speed with production work – and the difference is really notable when I move files from my laptop to the drive or re-save 2-4GB layered files on the drive.

It’s an annoying risk, but I’ll just monitor it for now.  If it starts to recur, I’ll fix it when I have a period of time where I don’t need the computer daily.  Likely starting with a reformat and reinstall after the new MacOS High Sierra has been out and showing stability for a bit.  The fact that Time Machine seems to be involved suggests to me that a clean installation of the OS may be the solution.  To be completely fair to Apple and LaCie, I have never done a clean installation since I bought my first Mac 9 years ago.  It’s probably time to clean out the cobwebs.  I have no reason to think that other users would see this same issue with LaCie, nor to think that I wouldn’t see the same problems with other Thunderbolt 3 drives on this computer.  But that’s just my hunch; based on extensive troubleshooting and research I’ve done thus far, Apple’s feedback and recommendations, and the 9 years I’ve done of installing operating systems over each other.


Conclusions on the LaCie 6Big

My experience with LaCie’s email customer service was disappointing, and the outstanding issues with hangs/crashes are frustrating.  But I don’t have any reason to think the crashes would be common or can’t be resolved. I would still recommend the 6Big if you have a lot of important data and a budget that would allow such an extravagant purchase.  Now that I’m setup and not currently seeing reboots, it really is a fantastic drive.  RAID6 gives me speed, protection against 2 drive failures, and the ability to continue working without interruption if a drive fails.  The drive looks nice and is as quiet as my laptop.  The Thunderbolt3 interface is super quick, offering real-world benefits over my old Thunderbolt1 RAID.  The software is intuitive and has everything I need. If you ever need support, just be sure to skip the email and go right to the phone.

The biggest question probably comes down to cost.  At $2700, this drive costs more than many people spend on a laptop or camera.  If you are using a robust backup strategy, even a $100 external drive can be a reasonable way to hold your extra data, especially if it’s data that you only need to access occasionally.  Other options including buying an older generation device (slower interface) or one that only supports 4 drives.  In five years or so, I hope I’ll be able to buy a large solid-state drive reasonably and replace this bulky RAID drive.  But for at least the next several years, I’m really happy to have such a fast and secure way to hold all my precious photos.

My general recommendations for extra storage of working data (from most desirable functionality to least expensive):

  • LaCie 6Big with Thunderbolt3, configured to RAID6.  I like the 5-year warranty (vs 3 years for Pegasus), 7200 RPM Seagate IronWolf drives (I assume the Pegasus drives may be lower quality or 5400 RPM drives, as there is no mention of this in its specifications), and slightly better software.  This also includes a USB3.1 interface, which makes it an excellent future-proofing choice if your current computer does not support Thunderbolt 3, but you anticipate you may get one in the next few years.
  • Pegasus R6 with Thunderbolt3, configured to RAID6.  I haven’t used their new model, but have been very happy with the old one.
  • Pegasus R4 with Thunderbolt2, configured to RAID5.  This will be fast and reliable, definitely a good option on medium-sized budget.  [If you can’t use Thunderbolt, you might want to look at the Drobo 5C (USB-C) or Drobo 5D (USB3 and Thunderbolt2) drives.  I have no experience with either.]
  • External SSD with USB3 or Thunderbolt.  This is the way to go if you need a portable option, but sizes are very limited (2TB is about the max right now realistically).  This is probably only a good option if you have a very small amount of data, but are willing to pay a premium for speed and protection.  Do some research on the speed, as not all SSDs are equal.
  • External hard disk drive, ideally 7200 RPM and USB3.  Any reputable brand is fine, but it’s worth doing some research on reliability. You may wish to consider extra clone drives, as this type of drive has a good risk of failure and restoring from a Time Machine or similar backup might mean that you lose a day or two while waiting for the data to be restore (or longer if you need to order a new drive and wait for it to be shipped).  For reference, my 6Big in RAID6 is 34 times faster than one of my 5400RPM external drives.  In other words, I can expect to transfer about 1000 of my 42MB images from a Nikon D810 in about 1 minute with the 6Big, about 24 minutes with a 7200 RPM drive, or about 32 minutes with a 5400 RPM drive.  Which is perfectly fine if I plan to do it in the background.

All of the above options should be paired with a robust backup strategy.  Even a 100% reliable drive could get damaged, stolen, succumb to malware, or have accidental deletion of data.


General recommendations on RAID settings

My general recommendations for photographers using RAID:

  • Use RAID5 if cost, speed, or total storage capacity are most important to you.  Use RAID6 if data protection is most important.
  • Use a 512K stripe size for a good balance of read and write speeds.  Or if you want to get every possible ounce of performance, test the various stripe sizes when you first configure the drive (but I think the value here is pretty minimal).
  • If you want to decrease the theoretical risk of a “write hole” being created if the power goes out, you can safely turn off caching without causing any noticeable loss of speed.  I have disabled it, as I once had corruption of data in a file allocation table, which resulted in nearly complete loss of data on that drive.  But it a white hole is a small risk in the first place, and turning off caching does not completely cut the risk.  If you’re concerned, you might consider getting a UPS (uninterruptible power supply).
  • Be sure to schedule background maintenance.  I run “background check and fix” weekly.  Other drives have similar options to check the redundancy/validity of your data.
  • If it really matters to you, test it yourself.  A lot of what I found flies in the face of conventional wisdom and the advice of others.  I wouldn’t claim that my results are going to hold true with other devices, but I think they are pretty reasonable recommendations – especially if you don’t want to spend many hours testing like I have.
  • If you do any speed testing, make sure background processes are done (initialization, encryption, etc).


Disclosure: This article contains affiliate links. See my ethics statement for more information.

I’m rarely excited at spending $3300, but I just pre-ordered the new Nikon D850 from B&H (the camera is expected to start shipping sometime in September, but initial demand will probably be high).  I already have the outstanding Nikon D810.  Do I need to upgrade?  Absolutely not.  I already have an incredible Nikon camera, D810.  But as a professional landscape photographer, I place a lot of value on cameras, lenses, and computers to help me produce high quality work efficiently.  The D850 promises improvements for both the quality and efficiency of my work.  I thought I’d share my thoughts here on the value of this camera from the perspective of a landscape photographer (but have also tried to add comments about other uses, as I have done quite a bit of wedding and portrait work in the past as well).

Why am I upgrading from the D810?  What makes the cost worth it to me?

  • Better low light image quality.   The back-side illuminated (BSI) is more efficient at gathering light.  I need to see some real world shots to really check this, but it should be a serious improvement for shooting the Milky Way and other high ISO scenarios.  I’ll still be stacking images, but I should get less noise and better ability to use faster shutter speeds.  This should be especially helpful for capturing the Aurora Borealis (as it moves and you can’t shoot too long nor stack exposures most of the time).  Nikon has enough confidence to increase their highest native ISO by one stop.
  • Tilt-LCD.  I love shooting at very low angles, especially with water as a reflection.  But I don’t particularly low laying down in the dirt or mud to compose the shot.  And I’ve got a few pairs of ripped pants that were snagged on sharp rocks doing so.
  • Touch LCD.  This looks like a nice way to work faster, especially for using “pinch to zoom” to check image sharpness.
  • Better auto-focus through the viewfinder.  The D850 inherits the excellent auto-focus system from the D5, which can focus in light as dark as -4ev (2 stops darker than the D810’s -2ev).   While I often use live view, I still use focus through the viewfinder quite a lot, and greatly appreciate improved accuracy, especially for blue hour shots.  The new system also offers greater coverage to focus on off-center subjects, more than 6 times as many of the more accurate “cross type” AF points, and 15 (vs 1) sensors that work on f/8 lenses.
  • Automated capture for focus stacking.  I love focus stacking, and I hate it.  I love how it lets me dramatically improve the quality of scenes with close foreground elements, but capturing and processing a series of images with different focal distances is a pain.  The D850’s built-in support is a welcome improvement to help simplify the image capture.  I expect this will save me time with focusing and shooting too many frames due to guesswork.  And should increase my confidence that I have successfully stepped through the full focusing range.  That said, there are always some tricky scenarios, and I expect I’ll still be doing some manual work (especially when a near subject is directly in front of a distant one, which causes pixel overlap issues that aren’t necessarily solved by simple focus stacking).
  • 26% more pixels (45.7 vs 36.3 megapixels in the D810).  Because megapixels represent area (height x width), the linear increase in resolution is only 12%.  It’s not a mind-blowing increase, but I appreciate the potential for extra quality, enlargement, or cropping.  I print a lot of images at 40×60″, so this represents a minor but real benefit to me.  On the flip side, it’s going to mean I hit the 4GB limit for TIF files more frequently (due to use of multiple layers and masks), so I hope Adobe adds support for viewing PSB files in Lightroom soon, or I’ll have to start using Bridge or some other solution to navigate through my images.


What else looks interesting to me?  The following are either benefits that I’m not 100% confident I’ll get from this camera, or of lesser important.  I’ll update when I get real experience with the camera.

  • Improved Dynamic Range?  I’m confident this has been improved, but with Nikon not doing much to quantify it, I suspect the gains are smaller than I’d like to see.  Every little bit is welcome.  Improved dynamic range may help me reduce shadow noise and motion alignment issues from blending multiple exposures (though I’ll still be blending, which I routinely do with single RAW files).  If this beats expectations, it would immediately jump up on my list of reasons to buy.
  • Higher resolution LCD.  The new LCD has doubled “dot resolution”.  I can’t tell from Nikon’s marketing material if this means the linear or total resolution has been doubled.  Either way, it should be a noticeable jump.  I really hope this improves my ability to manually focus and check focus during playback.  If that pans out, this would immediately jump up pretty high on my list of reasons to buy.
  • Faster image review (I hope).  Nikon claims 17x faster RAW processing.  The new EXPEED5 processor and XQD cards should offer faster playback, and the demo videos I’ve seen seem to suggest that images will playback faster.  It also looks like it can zoom into the image more quickly to review sharpness.  Both are critical for me to quickly check my work in the field and get back to shooting in changing light conditions.
  • Compatible with EN-EL15 batteries from the D810 (from what I’ve read).  Nice to know that I likely don’t have to spend hundreds of extra dollars on new batteries, or carry extra batteries and chargers when I bring my D810 body as a backup to the D850.  And it offers more shots on a single charge (which should be especially nice for shooting the Milky Way, where I run through batteries quickly with multiple long exposures and continuous live view).
  • Illuminated buttons.  Should be great for shooting the Milky Way.  And even better, may mean fewer neighboring photographers turn on shot-wrecking headlamps.
  • Faster shooting due to higher frame rate and larger image buffer.  I still shoot some sports and portraits, so the ability to shoot bursts of images without waiting will be nice.  The D850 can take nearly twice as many shots as the D810 before filling up the buffer, and it supports 7-9 frames per second (versus 5 for the D810 in full resolution or 7 cropped).  Getting to 9 frames per second requires the MB-D18 external grip ($400 from Nikon, though I expect Meike and Vello to produce much cheaper 3rd party options quickly) and a Nikon EN-EL18b battery (about $150).  With a buffer that holds 51 14-bit RAW files, you’re probably vastly overshooting if you ever hit the end of the buffer (that would be over 7 seconds of continuous shooting at 7fps).  I’ll probably get a grip for shooting vertical portraits, but I won’t be getting the battery (I’ll never need miss that speed, especially given both cost and the fact that it’s another charger and a battery that only fits in the grip, not in the camera itself).
  • Focus peaking for manual focusing while in live view or shooting video.  I haven’t found the quality of this feature to be helpful in the Sony a7Rii, so I hope the D850 is more clear.
  • Improved RGB meter for more accurate exposure.
  • Reduced vignetting with wide-angle lenses?  That’s one of the promises of the BSI sensor, but I’m not sure how it will work in practice with my newer wide angle lenses.
  • Built-in Bluetooth connectivity and Snapbridge.  I’m not really sure yet what this means.  Nikon (and most camera companies) have a poor track record of creating great software, and Bluetooth is much slower than WiFi.  But I am hopeful that either Nikon or a 3rd party can turn this new hardware into a great way to remotely control the camera.  This likely won’t support long distances, so mountain-top selfies will probably still require something like a Pocket Wizard to trigger the camera.
  • Improved mirror/shutter design (including a shutter counter-balance).  Initial reports suggest that this significantly reduces issues with internal vibration affecting image quality.
  • Better weather sealing and no more pop-up flash.  The removal of the flash gets rid of one more area where water and dust can enter the camera.  And since I’ve never used the popup flash due to the awful quality of light, I’m very happy that it won’t be accidentally opening and snagging on my camera bags any more.  I’m surprised I’ve never broken one of these off my old cameras.
  • Larger viewfinder.
  • Nikon’s Auto AF Fine Tune.  Not a perfect system (can’t tune multiple focal lengths on zoom lenses or correct off center), but a much welcome addition to improve focusing accuracy for wide aperture shots.


What else is in there?  (Stuff that I don’t personally care about, but others probably do)

  • 4k and slow motion HD video.  I may care about this before I’m done using the D850, but I don’t do much cinematic work, and don’t expect I’ll be shooting and editing 4k video anytime soon.  Serious video shooters will likely love this, as 4k video is really starting to gain traction (somewhere around 25% of US homes now have 4k TVs, and 4k computer monitors are growing quickly).  If you’re into serious video, do some more digging, as there’s a lot more than I’m covering here.
  • 8k timelapse.  I don’t do much timelapse, and you can generate 8k from shooting still if you had to.  I’m sure timelapse photographers will greatly appreciate this.
  • Silent shooting in live view.  If I were still shooting weddings, this would be absolutely awesome.  Should also be great for wildlife photographers.
  • Radio flash control.  I wish I had this years ago while shooting weddings.  All I ever wanted was manual flash power control from the camera.  As it is, I have plenty of legacy speedlights and don’t use them enough to upgrade.
  • Medium RAW files.  I don’t see a need to shoot low resolution, but if you do, you can now have more options to do so with all the quality of RAW.


Any downsides or missing features?

  • I’m not thrilled at the cost of having to replace my compact flash cards with QXD cards.  I realize that compact flash is basically a dead technology and QXD is much faster, so hopefully this newer card format becomes more of a standard that I can keep using for a long time.  I just consider it part of the cost of upgrading.  I’m buying a couple of 128GB Lexar cards.  That should help cover my needs at the most reasonable cost.  I plan to use the QXD purely as a backup, so I’m not going to bother getting a card reader at this point (as I can use the D850 as a card reader if needed).  That’s more or less what I’ve been doing with my Compact Flash cards for years.
  • I wish there was true built-in WiFi support.  If you’re willing to drop $1000 and add a bulky WT-7A adapter, you can get that with the D850.  That doesn’t sound like the simple solution I’d like for remote operation.
  • I wish the minimum ISO could have been pushed lower (same 32 as the D810, but probably with better quality).  The less I have to use ND filters for slow shutter speeds, the better.
  • Same electronic front curtain design (still only available in Mup mode).  I wish it was automatically supported with exposure delay mode as well.  I don’t expect this to have much impact on image quality, but if Nikon sees a benefit, why not make it available more easily?
  • No GPS.

For a summary, see Nikon’s nice head to head comparison of the D850 vs D810.

If you don’t already have a camera, the $500 extra over the D810 seems like a no-brainer to me.  If you do have a good camera, it really comes down to your needs and budget.

These are just my impressions based on what I’ve read, but I’m ready to buy now based on the specs and Nikon’s track record in making meaningful gains.  I’m sure my opinions will change as I get hands on with the new camera.  If you’ve seen any information which adds to or contradicts my understanding here, please comment below.  I’ll share more details about my experience once I’ve had a chance to use the camera.

Disclosure: This article contains affiliate links. See my ethics statement for more information.

The HSL (hue, saturation, lightness) tool in Photoshop is pretty seductive.  Pick a target color and then you can make boost the saturation or tweak the color a bit.  It’s easy to understand and often does a great job.  But it has some important limitations.  The most important is that there’s natural adjustment of tone along with the color.  The lightness slider is just about useless.  Push it left and you get dark and drab, push it right and you get dull desaturation.  If you try to increase saturation with lightness, the result often includes odd color artifacts.

What does that mean?  Well, let’s say you want to make some green trees look more like an autumn yellow.  With HSL, you can set the yellow hue to -20 (since trees that look green are typically selected with yellows).  That will make the trees look more yellow, but they will look dull.  The leaves will be too dark and not saturated enough.  You can then boost lightness and saturation to make them look better.  But they interact with each other strongly, and it’s unclear which to move first or how much to find that magic balance of S and L.  And once you do, you’re still going to have a result that probably won’t look as good as what you could get with Selective Color.

If I haven’t convinced you yet that it might be a better tool, I hope I’ve at least piqued your interest in trying it out.  What’s the downside?  It’s more complicated to understand, especially if you don’t have a solid understanding of color theory or experience printing in CMYK.  But don’t let that intimidate you.  The tutorial below will show you some basics on the theory in the tutorial below to get you started.  And more importantly, this is a tool where you can play even if you don’t understand the theory.  It might take you a little longer, but you’ll be able to get some great results with a very simple workflow.


Here’s the basic Selective Color workflow:

  • Process your RAW for color.  If there is too little saturation for a color, it won’t be properly targeted.  And if you’re white balance is incorrect or there is a strong cast across multiple colors, you may have trouble selecting the right areas.  So make sure you use proper white balance, consider pushing the color during RAW conversion, and save any color grading (adding deliberate color casts such as a cool moody blue) until after using Selective Color.
  • Create a new Selective Color adjustment layer (Layer / New Adjustment Layer / Selective Color, or just click the new adjustment layer icon at the bottom of the layers pallet).  This will let you work non-destructively, which I generally recommend with this tool.
  • Start out in the “relative” mode.  This produces the most natural results.
  • Use the color dropdown to select your target color (red, green, etc) or tonal range (whites, neutrals, blacks – note that these select by luminosity, and are not just targeting desaturated values).  Note that Photoshop’s definition of a particular color may not agree with your definition, so try the neighboring colors.  A common example of this is the need to use yellows to adjust green trees (and sometimes even cyan).
  • Move the CMYK sliders back and forth.  If you understand color theory, that will be very helpful in this step.  But there’s nothing wrong with just playing around and seeing what looks best.
  • Select and adjust other target colors as needed.  I find it often helps to adjust the neighboring colors.
  • If you still need more color, try switching to “absolute” mode or duplicate the Selective Color layer.  Relative mode will let you make more extreme adjustments, but may cause loss of color detail.  And keep in mind that a duplicate layer is going to work on the output of the first layer, so the targeting may shift a bit.  Try both to see which looks better, and then tweak the better result as needed to finish.

Basic concepts to keep in mind when adjusting the CMYK sliders:

  • In relative mode, you are very limited in your ability to increase CMYK if the existing color doesn’t have much of a given component.  This is most likely when you might need to think about relative mode (particularly for pure cyan, magenta, and yellow – since they are dominated by a single CMY component).
  • Sliding to the right shifts toward Cyan, Magenta, Yellow.  Sliding to the left shifts toward Red, Green, Blue.
  • Moving any slider right tends to make the color perceptually darker, while sliding left makes it perceptually lighter.
  • Think of CMY as a group relative to each other.  Setting Y to +60 or C and M both to -60 will both increase yellow saturation.  However, moving Y to the right will darken while increasing yellow saturation, while moving C and M left will lighten while increasing saturation.
  • The math of all of this is very hard to predict (particularly in absolute mode), so expect unexpected results and play around.

There I was, sitting in pitch black all by myself.  All I could hear were coyotes howling and the calls of loons.  In between, it was so quiet I could literally hear nothing but myself.  It was absolute magic.  And then after a few hours of waiting for the right moment, I was able to capture this incredible view of the Milky Way rising over forest pine trees.

I just started shooting the Milky Way last year.  I had avoided it for a while due to the complexity.  A good shot requires shooting in remote areas with dark skies, a clear night, shooting at the right time of the year when the thickest part of the Milky Way is visible, hours of preparation and waiting for alignment of the sky with your foreground, getting additional shots of the foreground at the blue hour, wide aperture lenses, focusing in the dark, and advanced post-processing.  And given the timing of the work in remote locations, there’s a good chance you’ll want to be camping to pull it all off.  It’s daunting!  But once you get over the learning curve, there’s a rhythm to it and things get much easier.  It’s actually very addicting.

Learn how to make your own with my tutorials on stacking multiple exposures, reducing night sky noise with a single image, and how to focus at night.

I captured this image with my Nikon D810, Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8 and Really Right Stuff TVC-33 tripod.  I also used the Photo Pills iPhone app to visualize the composition in advance.  As I do for most of my Milky Way shots, this image was captured at 14mm, f/2.8, ISO 6400, and 15 seconds.  Although others may tell you it is ok to shoot longer at 14mm, I actually find that 13-15s is the upper limit for what I consider acceptable.  Longer exposures start to create noticeable star trails.

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